Professor Mark Graham

Mark Graham is a geographer that focuses on economic development, labour, power, participation, and representation.


Tel: +44 (0)1865 287203

Mark Graham is the Professor of Internet Geography at the OII, a Faculty Fellow at the Alan Turing Institute, a Senior Research Fellow at Green Templeton College, and an Associate in the University of Oxford’s School of Geography and the Environment.

He has published articles in major geography, communications, and urban studies journals, and his work has been covered by the Economist, the BBC, the Washington Post, CNN, the Guardian, and many other international newspapers and magazines. He is an editorial board member of Information, Communication, and SocietyGeo:Geography, Environment and Planning A, and Big Data & Society.  In 2014, he was awarded a European Research Council Starting Grant to lead a team to study ‘knowledge economies’ in Sub-Saharan Africa over five years.

He leads a range of research projects spanning topics between digital labour, the gig economy, internet geographies, and ICTs and development; and is accepting PhD students with an interest in any of that work.

He has spent the last few years investigating the implications of new types of digital labour and online freelancing for workers in the Global South. This research is ongoing in his team’s research on outsourcing and microwork. At the moment, the tens of millions of workers who do digital work do so in a largely unregulated and socially disembedded way. This clearly benefits some workers, but we should also worry about a race to the bottom occurring as ever more people come online.

He also teaches a course at the OII called ‘ICT and Development‘ that focuses on the winners and losers in the contexts of rapidly changing global connectivity. His current research on this topic looks at digital entrepreneurship and the ways that conditions in African cities shape practices of local entrepreneurs (as part of a large project with Nicolas Friederici about African ‘knowledge economies‘). Previous research has focused on how the internet can impact production networks (of tea, tourism, and outsourcing) in East Africa, and asked who wins and loses from those changes. He also co-founded and leads the ‘Connectivity, Inclusion, and Inequality‘ and ‘Big Data and Human Development‘ research clusters at Oxford.

Digital Geographies his most long-standing research area. He ask how people and places are ever more defined by, and made visible through, not only their traditional physical locations and properties, but also their virtual attributes and digital shadows. If the places that we live in are increasingly digital, then there are important questions about who controls, and has access to, our digitally-augmented and digitally-mediated worlds. He has written extensively about this topic in both the academic and popular press. He also uses a lot of internet geography maps to tell this story.

He is grateful to have had much of my research funded by a donors such as the European Research Council, the ESRC, the British Academy, and the Leverhulme Trust. He is also fortunate to have had the opportunity to work with and collaborate with a diverse group of wonderful scholars and thinkers throughout his career.

Areas of Interest for Doctoral Supervision

Big data,  cultural industries, digital divides, ICT4D, inequality, innovation, open data, public policy, social media, labour, markets, digital labour, geography, transparency, participation, Africa, economic geography, global production networks, ethical consumption, power

Research interests

Internet Geography, ICT for development, digital labour, globalization, economic geography, transportation and communications, social theory, transparency, user-generated content, zombies

Select Current Writing

For more of his writing, please visit his full list of publications.

Positions held at the OII

  • Professor of Internet Geography, July 2016 –
  • Senior Research Fellow and Associate Professor, May 2014 – June 2016
  • Senior Research Fellow, August 2013 – May 2014
  • Director of Research, October 2012 – December 2013
  • Research Fellow, October 2009 – July 2013

Students supervised at the OII

Current students

Past students

Latest blog posts

Current projects

Past projects

  • Big Data and Human Development

    Participants: Professor Mark Graham, Dr Fabian Braesemann

    The big data and human development research network aims to investigate the potential uses of 'big data' for advancing human development and addressing equity gaps.

  • Development and Broadband Internet Access in East Africa

    Participants: Professor Mark Graham, Dr Laura Elizabeth Mann, Dr Christopher Foster, Professor Tim Waema, Charles Katua, Dr Felix Akorli, Claude Bizimana

    By using surveys, interviews and in-depth observations, this project examined the expectations and stated potentials of broadband Internet in East Africa and compared those expectations to on-the-ground effects that broadband connectivity is having.

  • Does Wikipedia represent ‘the sum of all human knowledge’? Examining the geographical scope of a peer-produced encyclopedia

    Participants: Professor Mark Graham, Dr Heather Ford, Brent Hecht, Dave Musicant, Shilad Sen

    This project aims to develop a set of lenses for analyzing Wikipedia’s geographical scope whilst employing a reflexive analytical process to expose the makings of the ‘big data’ that we will produce.

  • Geography of Digital Inequality

    Participants: Professor Mark Graham, Dr Grant Blank, Claudio Calvino

    This project combined OxIS and census data to produce the first detailed geographic estimates of Internet use across the UK.

  • Interactive Visualizations for Teaching, Research, and Dissemination

    Participants: Professor Helen Margetts, Professor Mark Graham, Dr Scott A. Hale, Dr Monica Bulger, Joshua Melville

    "InteractiveVis" aims to support easy creation of interactive visualisations for geospatial and network data by researchers: it will survey existing solutions, build currently missing features, and smooth over incompatibilities between existing libraries.

  • Microwork and Virtual Production Networks in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia

    Participants: Professor Mark Graham, Dr Isis Hjorth, Professor Vili Lehdonvirta, Dr Alex J Wood, Professor Helena Barnard

    This project aims to understand the implications of gig economy and online freelancing for economic development.

  • Using Twitter to Map and Measure Online Cultural Diffusion

    Participants: Professor Mark Graham, Dr Scott A. Hale, Devin Gaffney, Dr Ning Wang

    This project is using Twitter data to comprehensively uncover where Internet content is being created; whether the amount of content created in different places is changing over time; and how content moves across time and space in the Social Web.

  • Who represents the Arab world online? Mapping and measuring local knowledge production and representation in the Middle East and North Africa

    Participants: Dr Bernie Hogan, Professor Mark Graham, Richard Farmbrough, Clarence Singleton, Dr Heather Ford, Dr Ilhem Allagui, Dr Ali Frihida, Ahmed Medhat Mohamed

    Using Wikipedia to explore the participation gap between those who have their say, and those whose voices are pushed to the side, in representations of the Arab world online.


Graham, M and Dutton, W. H. (eds). 2014. Society and the Internet: How Networks of Information and Communication are Changing our Lives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hammett, D., Twyman, K. C., and Graham, M. 2014. Research and Fieldwork in Development. London: Routledge.


Graham, M and Shaw, J. (eds). 2017. Towards a Fairer Gig Economy. London: Meatspace Press. (also translated into Italian)

Shaw, J and Graham, M. (eds). 2017. Our Digital Rights to the City. London: Meatspace Press.

Shaw, J and Graham, M. (eds). 2017. Il nostro diritto digitale alla città. Rome: Openpolis.

Graham, M., S. Hale and M. Stephens. 2011. Geographies of the World’s KnowledgeConvoco! Edition.

Graham, M., S. Hale and M. Stephens. 2011. Eine Geographie Des Wissens Der WeltConvoco! Edition.

Selected publications

Graham, M. and Anwar, M.A. 2018. Digital Labour In: Digital Geographies Ash, J., Kitchin, R. and Leszczynski, A. (eds.). Sage. London.

Wood, A., Lehdonvirta, V., and Graham, M. 2018. Workers of the Internet unite? Online freelancer organisation among remote gig economy workers in six Asian and African countriesNew Technology, Work and Employment. 33(2). 95-112. 10.1111/ntwe.12112. (pre-publication version here)

Graham, M. and Woodcock, J. 2018. Towards a Fairer Platform Economy: Introducing the Fairwork FoundationAlternate Routes. 29. 242-253.

Zook, M. and Graham, M. 2018. Hacking Code/Space: Confounding the Code of Global CapitalismTransactions of the Institute of British Geographers. 10.1111/tran.12228.

Graham, M. 2018. The Virtual Palimpsest of the Global City Network. In The Globalizing Cities Reader. eds. X. Ren and R. Keil. Abingdon:Routledge. 198-204.

Stephens, M., Tong, L., Hale, S., and Graham, M. 2018. Misogyny, Twitter, and the Rural Voter. In Watrel, R. H., Weichelt, R., Davidson, F. M., Heppen, J., Fouberg, E. H., Archer, J. C., Morrill, R. L., Shelley, F. M., Martis, K. C. (eds). Atlas of the 2016 Elections. New York: Rowman & Littlefield. 55-57.

Graham, M. 2018. Rethinking the Geoweb and Big Data: Future Research Directions. In Thinking Big Data in Geography: New Regimes, New Research. Thatcher, J., Eckert, J., and Shears, A. (eds). University of Nebraska Press. Lincoln. 231-236.

Graham, M., Ojanpera, S., Anwar, M. A., and Friederici, N. 2017. Digital Connectivity and African Knowledge Economies. Questions de Communication. 32. 345-360.

Foster, C., Graham, M., Mann, L., Waema, T., and Friederici, N. 2017. Digital Control in Value Chains: Challenges of Connectivity for East African FirmsEconomic Geography. 94(1) 68-86.   

Ballatore, A., Graham, M., and Sen, S. 2017. Digital Hegemonies: The Localness of Search Engine ResultsAnnals of the American Association of Geographers. 107(5) 1194-1215 DOI:10.1080/24694452.2017.1308240.

Graham, M., Hjorth, I., Lehdonvirta, V. 2017. Digital labour and development: impacts of global digital labour platforms and the gig economy on worker livelihoodsTransfer: European Review of Labour and Research. 23 (2) 135-162.

Ojanperrä, A., Graham, M., Straumann, R., De Sabbata, S., and Zook, M. 2017. Engagement in the Knowledge Economy: Regional Patterns of Content Creation with a Focus on Sub-Saharan AfricaInformation Technologies and International Development. 13. 33-51.

Blank, G., Graham, M., Calvino, C. 2017. Local Geographies of Digital InequalitySocial Science Computer Review.  DOI:

Shaw, J. and Graham, M. 2017. An Informational Right to the City? Code, Content, Control, and the Urbanization of InformationAntipode. 49(4) 907-927.  10.1111/anti.12312

Friederici, N. Ojanperä, S., and Graham, M. 2017. The Impact of Connectivity in Africa: Grand Visions and the Mirage of Inclusive Digital DevelopmentElectronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries. 79(2) 1-20.

Graham, M. 2017. Digitally Augmented Geographies. In Understanding Spatial Media. eds. Kitchin, R., Lauriault, T. P., and Wilson, M. W. London: Sage. 44-55.

Foster, C. and Graham, M. 2017. Reconsidering the Role of the Digital in Global Production Networks. Global Networks. 17(1) 68-88 DOI: 10.1111/glob.12142.

Ford, H. and Graham, M. 2016. Provenance, Power, and Place: Linked Data and Opaque Digital geographies. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space. doi:10.1177/0263775816668857 34(6). 957-970. (pre-publication version here).

Smart, C., Donner, J., and Graham, M. 2016. Connecting the World from the Sky: Spatial Discourses Around Internet Access in the Developing World. Eighth International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development.

Straumann, R. K., Graham, M. 2016. Who isn’t online? Mapping the ‘Archipelago of Disconnection.’Regional Studies, Regional Science. 3(1) 96-98.

Mann, L and Graham, M. 2016 The Domestic Turn: Business Process Outsourcing and the Growing Automation of Kenyan Organisations. Journal of Development Studies 52:4, 530-548, DOI: 10.1080/00220388.2015.1126251. (pre-publication version here)

Graham, M., and Foster, C. 2016. Geographies of Information Inequality in Sub-Saharan AfricaThe African Technopolitan. 5 78-85.

Graham, M., Mann, L., Friederici, N. and Waema, T. 2016. Growing the Kenyan Business Process Outsourcing SectorThe African Technopolitan. 5 93-95

Ford, H., and Graham, M. 2016. Semantic Cities: Coded Geopolitics and the Rise of the Semantic Web. In Code and the City. eds. Kitchin, R., and Perng, S-Y. London: Routledge. 200-214.

Poorthuis, A., Zook, M., Shelton, T., Graham, M, and Stephens, M. 2016. Using Geotagged Digital Social Data in Geographic Research. In Key Methods in Geography. eds. Clifford, N., French, S., Cope, M., and Gillespie, T. London: Sage. 248-269.

Graham, M., Straumann, R., Hogan, B. 2015. Digital Divisions of Labor and Informational Magnetism: Mapping Participation in Wikipedia. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 105(6) 1158-1178. doi:10.1080/00045608.2015.1072791.(pre-publication version here)

Graham, M. 2015. Information Geographies and Geographies of Information New Geographies 7 159-166.

Graham, M., De Sabbata, S., Zook, M. 2015. Towards a study of information geographies:(im)mutable augmentations and a mapping of the geographies of information Geo: Geography and Environment.2(1) 88-105. doi:10.1002/geo2.8

Graham, M. 2015. Contradictory Connectivity: Spatial Imaginaries and Techno-Mediated Positionalities in Kenya’s Outsourcing Sector. Environment and Planning A 47 867-883 (pre-publicaion version here).

Graham, M., Andersen, C., and Mann, L. 2015 Geographical Imagination and Technological Connectivity in East Africa. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 40(3) 334-349. (pre-publication version here).

Graham, M and De Sabbata, S. 2015 Mapping Information Wealth and Poverty: The Geography of Gazetteers. Environment and Planning A 47(6). 1254-1264. (pre-publication version here).

Sen, S. W., Ford, H., Musicant, D. R., Graham, M., Keyes, O. S. B., Hecht, B. 2015 Barriers to the Localness of Volunteered Geographic Information. CHI 2015 (pre-publication version here).

Allagui, I., Graham, M., and Hogan, B. 2015. Wikipedia Arabe et la Construction Collective du Savoir. In Wikipedia, objet scientifique non identifie. eds. Barbe, L., Merzeau, L., and Schafer, V. Paris: Presses Universitaries du Paris Ouest. 177-194.

Zook, M., Graham, M., and Boulton, A. 2015. Crowd-sourced Augmented Realities: Social Media and the Power of Digital Representation. In Mediated Geographies International Handbook. eds. Mains, S., Cupples, J.,and Lukinbeal, C. New York: Springer. 223-242.

Graham, M., Hogan, B., Straumann, R. K., and Medhat, A. 2014. Uneven Geographies of User-Generated Information: Patterns of Increasing Informational Poverty. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 104(4). 746-764. (pre-publication version here)

Graham, M. 2014 Inequitable Distributions in Internet Geographies: The Global South is Gaining Access But Lags in Local Content. innovations 9(3-4). 17-34.

Choi, J. H-j., and Graham, M. 2014 Urban Food Futures: ICTs and Opportunities. Futures 62(B; October). 151-154. (pre-publication version here)

Shelton, T., Poorthuis, A., Graham, M,. and Zook, M. 2014. Mapping the Data Shadows of Hurricana Sandy: Uncovering the Sociospatial Dimensions of ‘Big Data’. Geoforum 52. 167-179. (open pre-publication version here).

Dutton, W. H., and Graham, M. 2014. Introduction. In Society and the Internet: How Networks of Information and Communication are Changing our Lives. eds. Graham, M., and Dutton, W. H. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1-22.

Graham, M. 2014. Internet Geographies: Data Shadows and Digital Divisions of Labour. In Society and the Internet: How Networks of Information and Communication are Changing our Lives. eds. Graham, M., and Dutton, W. H. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 99-116.

Graham, M. 2014. A Critical Perspective on the Potential of the Internet at the Margins of the Global Economy. In Society and the Internet: How Networks of Information and Communication are Changing our Lives. eds. Graham, M., and Dutton, W. H. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 301-318.

Graham, M. 2014. The Knowledge Based Economy and Digital Divisions of Labour. In Companion to Development Studies, 3rd edition, eds V. Desai, and R. Potter. Hodder189-195.

Graham, M. and Zook, M. 2014. Augmentierte Geographien: Zur digitalen Erfahrung des städtischen Alltags. Geographische Rundschau65(6) 18-25.

Yasseri, T., Spoerri, A., Graham, M. and Kertesz, J. 2014. The Most Controversial Topics in Wikipedia: A Multilingual and Geographical Anlaysis. In Global Wikipedia: International and Cross-Cultural Issues in Online Collaboration. eds. Fichman, P., and Hara, N. Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield 25-48.

Graham, M, S. Hale, and D. Gaffney. 2014. Where in the World are You? Geolocation and Language Identification in Twitter. The Professional Geographer 66(4) 568-578. (pre-publication version here)

Graham, M. and Shelton, T. 2013. Geography and the Future of Big Data; Big Data and the Future of GeographyDialogues in Human Geography 3(3) 255-261. (pre-publication version here)

Graham, M. and H. Haarstad. 2013. Open Development through Open Consumption: The Internet of Things, User-Generated Content and Economic Transparency. In Open Development: Networked Innovations in International Development. eds. Smith, M. L., and Reilly, K. M. A., Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 79-111.

Graham, M. 2013. The Virtual Dimension. In Global City Challenges: debating a concept, improving the practice. eds. M. Acuto and W. Steele. London: Palgrave. 117-139.

Graham, M, R. Schroeder, and G. Taylor. 2013. Re: Search New Media and Society. 15(8) 1366-1373 (pre-publication version here).

Graham, M. 2013. Social Media and the Academy: New Publics or Public Geographies? Dialogues in Human Geography 3(1) 77-80 (pre-publication version here).

Graham, M and M. Zook. 2013. Augmented Realities and Uneven Geographies: Exploring the Geo-linguistic Contours of the Web. Environment and Planning A 45(1) 77-99.

Wilson, M and M. Graham. 2013. Guest Editorial: Situating Neogeography. Environment and Planning A 45(1) 3-9.

Graham, M. 2013. Geography/Internet: Ethereal Alternate Dimensions of Cyberspace or Grounded Augmented Realities? The Geographical Journal 179(2) 177-182(pre-publication version here).

Graham, M., Shelton, T., and M. Zook. 2013. Mapping Zombies: A Guide for Pre-Apocalptic Analysis and Post-Apocalytpic Survival. In Zombies in the Academy: Living Death in Higher Education. eds. A. Whelan, R. Walker and C. Moore. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 147-156.

Graham, M. and L. Mann. 2013. Imagining a Silicon Savannah? Technological and Conceptual Connectivity in Kenya’s BPO and Software Development Sectors. Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries. 56(2). 1-19.

Crampton, J. W., M. Graham, A. Poorthuis, T. Shelton, M. Stephens, M. W. Wilson, and M. Zook. 2013. Beyond the Geotag: Situating ‘big data’ and leveraging the potential of the geoweb. Cartography and Geographic Information Science40(2): 130-139.

Graham, M. 2013. Thai Silk dot Com: Authenticity, Altruism, Modernity and Markets in the Thai Silk Industry. Globalisations 10(2) 211-230.

Graham, M., M. Zook., and A. Boulton. 2013. Augmented Reality in Urban Places: contested content and the duplicity of code. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. 38(3), 464-479. (pre-publication version here)

Shelton, T., M. Zook and M.Graham. 2012. The Technology of Religion: Mapping Religious Cyberscapes. The Professional Geographer 64(4). 602-617.

Graham, M., S. Hale, and M. Stephens. 2012. Digital Divide: The Geography of Internet AccessEnvironment and Planning A, 44(5)1009-1010.

Brunn, S., R. Ghose and M. Graham. 2012. Cities of the Future and the Future of Cities. In Cities of the World, 5th edition, eds S. Brunn, M. Hays-Mitchell, and D. Ziegler. Rowman and Littlefield, 557-597.

Graham, M. and H. Haarstad. 2012. Global Production Patterns. In 21st Century Geography: A Reference Handbook. ed. Stoltman, J. London: Sage. 411-421.

Graham, M. 2012. Die Welt in Der Wikipedia Als Politik der Exklusion: Palimpseste des Ortes und selective Darstellung. In Wikipedia. eds. S. Lampe, and P. Bäumer. Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung/bpb, Bonn.

Graham, M. 2011. “Perish or Globalize:” Network Integration and the Reproduction and Replacement of Weaving Traditions in the Thai Silk Industry ACME: Journal of Critical Geographies10(3) 458-482.

Graham, M. and H. Haarstad. 2011. Transparency and Development: Ethical Consumption through Web 2.0 and the Internet of ThingsInformation Technologies and International Development. 7(1). 1-18.

Graham, M. 2011. Wiki Space: Palimpsests and the Politics of Exclusion. In Critical Point of View: A Wikipedia Reader. Eds. Lovink, G. and Tkacz, N. Amsterdam: Institute of Network Cultures, 269-282.

Graham, M. 2011. Time Machines and Virtual Portals: The Spatialities of the Digital DivideProgress in Development Studies. 11 (3). 211-227.

Graham, M. and M. Zook. 2011. Visualizing Global Cyberscapes: Mapping User Generated PlacemarksJournal of Urban Technology. 18(1), 115-132.

Graham, M. 2011. Cultural Brokers, the Internet, and Value Chains. In The Cultural Wealth of Nations. eds. Wherry, F. and N. Bandelj. Standford: Stanford University Press. 222-239 (email for a copy).

Graham, M. 2011. Disintermediation, Altered Chains and Altered Geographies: The Internet in the Thai Silk IndustryElectronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries. 45(5), 1-25

Graham, M. 2011. Cloud Collaboration: Peer-Production and the Engineering of the Internet. In Engineering Earth. ed. Brunn, S. New York: Springer, 67-83.

Graham, M. 2010. Justifying Virtual Presence in the Thai Silk Industry: Links Between Data and DiscourseInformation Technologies and International Development. 6(4), 57-70.

Zook, M., M. Graham, T. Shelton, & S. Gorman. 2010. Volunteered Geographic Information and Crowdsourcing Disaster Relief: A Case Study of the Haitian Earthquake.World Medical and Health Policy. 2(2), 7-33.

Graham, M. 2010. Neogeography and the Palimpsests of PlaceTijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie. 101(4), 422-436.

Zook, M. and M. Graham. 2010. The Virtual ‘Bible Belt.’ Environment and Planning A. 42(4), 763-764.

Graham, M. 2010. Web 2.0 and Critical Globalization StudiesRadical Teacher. 87, 70-71.

Graham, M. 2009. Different Models in Different Spaces or Liberalized Optimizations? Competitive Strategies among Budget Air CarriersJournal of Transport Geography. 17(4), 306-316.

Graham, M. 2008. Warped Geographies of Development: The Internet and Theories of Economic Development. Geography Compass, 2(3), 771-789.

Brunn, S., R. Ghose, & M. Graham. 2008. Cities of the Future and the Future of Cities. In Cities of the World, 4th edition, eds S. Brunn, M. Hays-Mitchell, and D. Ziegler. Rowman and Littlefield, 565-613.

Graham, M. 2008. The Place of Space in Internet Matrimony. Indian Geographical Journal, 83(2), 87-104.

Zook, M. & M. Graham. 2007. The Creative Reconstruction of the Internet: Google and the Privatization of Cyberspace and DigiPlaceGeoforum, 38, 1322-1343.

Zook, M. & M. Graham. 2007. From Cyberspace to DigiPlace: Visibility in an Age of Information and Mobility. In Societies and Cities in the Age of Instant Access. Ed. H. J. Miller. Springer, 231-244. (request copy by email).

Zook, M. & M. Graham. 2007. Mapping DigiPlace: Geocoded Internet Data and the Representation of PlaceEnvironment and Planning B: Planning and Design. 34(3) 466 – 482.

Zook, M. & M. Graham. 2006. Wal-Mart Nation: Mapping the Reach of a Retail Colossus. In Wal-Mart World. Ed. S. Brunn. Routledge, 15-25.


Graham, M., and Berliner, J. (2017). Use the Digital to Make the World you Want to See [MP3]. Oxford: University of Oxford.

Other publications

Wood, A.J. and Graham, M. (2018) The government consultation on employment classification and control: a response. Response to the UK Government open consultation on employment status. Feb 7, 2018.

Graham, M. 2018. The UK universities strike is the frontline of the gig economy fight. Wired. Mar 12, 2018.

Graham, M. 2018. The Rise of the Planetary Labour MarketNew Statesman. Jan 29, 2018.

Graham, M., Lehdonvirta, L., Wood., A., Barnard, H., and Hjorth, I. 2018. Could Online Gig Work Drive Development in Lower-income Countries? In Galperin, H., and Alarcon, A. The Future of Work in the Global South. Ottawa: IDRC. 8-11.

Graham, M., and Sengupta, A. 2017. We’re all connected now, so why is the internet so white and western? The Guardian. Oct 5, 2017.

Wood, A., and Graham, M. 2017. Virtual Monopolies and The Workers’ Voice. iai News. Sept 4, 2017.

Ojanperä, S., and Graham, M. 2017. Africa risks fading from digital knowledge economy. SciDevNet, June 6, 2017.

Graham, M., Lehdonvirta, V., Wood, A., Barnard, H., Hjorth, I., and Simon, D. P. 2017. The Risks and Rewards of Online Gig Work At the Global Margins. Oxford: Oxford Internet Institute.

Graham, M. and Wood, A. 2017. How to resist the exploitation of digital gig workersRed Pepper. Apr 14, 2017

Graham, M. and Shaw, J. 2017. An ‘Informational Right to the City’?New Internationalist. Feb 8, 2017

Graham, M. Friederici, N. Ojanperä, S. 2017. The Link Between Internet Access and Economic Growth Is Not as Strong as You ThinkCouncil on Foreign Relations: Net Politics.

Wood, A., Graham, M., Anwar, M. A., Ramizo, G. 2017. Minimum wages on online labour platforms. Oxford Internet Institute.

Graham, M., Lehdonvirta, V., Barnard, H., Wood, A., Hjorth, I., Azarhoosh, K., and Simon, D. 2017. Written evidence to the Work and Pensions Committee inquiry into self-employment and the gig economy.

Graham, M. 2016. Let’s make platform capitalism more accountableNew Internationalist. Dec 13, 2016

Graham, M. and Wood, A. 2016. Why the digital gig economy needs co-ops and unionsopenDemocracy. Sept 15, 2016

Graham, M. 2016. Digital work marketplaces impose a new balance of powerNew Internationalist. May 25, 2016

Graham, M. 2016. Organising the Digital “Wild West”: Can Strategic Bottlenecks Help Prevent a Race to the Bottom for Online Workers? Union Solidarity International. May 11, 2016 (also translated into Turkish)

Graham, M. 2016. Digital Work and the Global Precariat. Union Solidarity International. Mar 30, 2016

Graham, M. 2016. Facebook is no Charity, and the ‘Free’ in Free Basics Comes at a Price. The Conversation Jan 11, 2016

Graham, M. 2015. Why Does Google Say Jerusalem is the Capital of Israel? Nov 30, 2015

Zook M, T Shelton, A Poorthuis, R Donohue, M Wilson, M Graham, M Stephens. 2015. What would a floating sheep map? Lexington, KY: Oves Natantes Press.

Graham, M. 2015. Internet For All Is An Impossible Dream Right NowGizmodo Oct 11, 2015 /Internet for all Remains an Impossible Dream, No Matter What Jimmy Wales Says. The Conversation Oct 8, 2015.

Graham, M. 2015. Digital Work Signals a Global Race to the BottomSciDevNet Sept 15, 2015

Graham, M. 2015. The Hidden Biases of Geodata. The Guardian Apr 28, 2015.

Foster, C. G., and Graham, M. 2015. Connectivity and the Tea Sector in Rwanda.Oxford Internet Institute Report, Oxford, UK.

Foster, C. G., and Graham, M. 2015. The Internet and Tourism in Rwanda. Oxford Internet Institute Report, Oxford, UK.

Mann, L., Graham, M., and Friederici, N. 2015. The Internet and Business Process Outsourcing in East Africa. Oxford Internet Institute Report, Oxford, UK.

Graham, M. 2014. Why global contributions to Wikipedia are so unequal. The ConversationSeptember 8, 2014

Graham, M. 2014. Geotagging reveals Wikipedia is not quite so equal after all. New StatesmanAugust 18, 2014.

Graham, M. and B. Hogan. 2014. Uneven Openness: Barriers to MENA Representation on Wikipedia. Oxford Internet Institute Report, Oxford, UK.

Graham, M. 2014. Kenya BPO and ITES Policy Brief. OII White Paper March 2014

Graham, M. 2013. Kenya’s Laptop’s For Schools Dream Fails to Address Reality. The Guardian June 27, 2013.

Graham, M. 2013. Geographies of Information in Africa: Wikipedia and User-Generated Content. In R-Link: Rwanda’s Official ICT Magazine. Kigali: Rwanda ICT Chamber. 40-41.

Graham, M, M. Stephens, and S. Hale. 2013. Mapping the Geoweb: A Geography of Twitter. Environment and Planning A 45(1) 100-102.

Wilson, M and M. Graham. 2013. Neogeography and Volunteered Geographic Information: A Conversation with Michael Goodchild and Andrew Turner. Environment and Planning A 45(1) 10-18.

Graham, M. 2013. Reaching Audiences Through Blogs and Social Media. In Publishing and Getting Read: A Guide for Researchers in GeographyEds. A. Blunt, and C. Souch. London: Royal Geographical Society. 34.

Graham, M. 2012. The Problem with WikidataThe Atlantic Apr 6, 2012.

Graham, M. 2012. Big data and the end of theory? The Guardian Mar 9, 2012.

Graham, M. 2012. In a Networked World, Why is the Geography of Knowledge Still Uneven?The Guardian Jan 9, 2012.

Zook, M., M. Graham, & T. Shelton. 2011. Analyzing Global Cyberscapes: Mapping Geocoded Internet InformationProceedings of the 2011 iConference.

Graham, M. 2010. A New Kind of Globalisation? User-Generated Content and Transparent Production ChainsThe Guardian. Dec 9, 2010.

Graham, M. 2010. Will Broadband Internet Establish a New Development Trajectory for East Africa?The Guardian Oct 7, 2010.

Graham, M. 2010. The Digital Economy. Book review essay in Regional Studies. 44:3, 385-386.

Zook, M., M. Graham & T. Shelton 2010. The Presidential Placemark Poll. Atlas of the 2008 Election. Ed. S. Brunn. In Press.

Graham, M., T. Shelton and M. Zook. 2010. Map of U.S. Abortion Providers and Alternatives. In Mapping America: Exploring the Continent. Eds. F. C. Kessler and F. Jacobs. Black Dog Publishing. 140-141.

Graham, M. 2009. Wikipedia’s Known UnknownsThe Guardian Dec 2, 2009.

Graham, M. 2009. Ethical Consumption and Production through Web 2.0: A Call for Participation. Development Geography Specialty Newsletter of the American Association of Geographers. Autumn 2009: 4.

Graham, M. 2009. Fluid Knowledge and Transparency: Using Web 2.0 to Promote Compassionate Consumption. Qualitative Geography Specialty Group NewsletterMarch 2009: 3.

Graham, M. 2008. Globalization, Culture, and Inequality. Book review essay in Progress in Development Studies, Vol 8(3), 296-298.

Graham, M. 2006 For Space. Book review essay in Growth and Change, Vol 37:4, 643-645.

Graham, M. 2005. Working in Silicon Valley. Book review essay in Urban Studies Vol. 42:13, 2535-2537.

Graham, M. 2005. Music and the Middle. RIFLe. Fall.

  • Economic Development in the Digital Age

    Introducing the debates and practices surrounding ICT uses in the Global South and Global North, drawing on Anthropology, Development Studies, Economics, Geography and History to examine the theoretical and conceptual frameworks that underpin development.