7 Dec 2005
Some e-participation projects have been funded and promoted by governments; others have been initiated by grass-roots activitists and communities. What is the relationship between such projects and the distribution of political power?
Top-down / governmental e-participation can be accused of allowing the public to have their say in ways that are subsequently ignored, about issues that have already been decided upon. Bottom-up / grass roots initiatives can be criticised as virtual talking shops which are isolated from the structures of decision-making. What scope is there for e-enabled co-governance?