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Platforms still failing to provide minimum protections for UK gig workers, say Oxford researchers, as demand for services falls

Published on
28 Apr 2023
For the third year, researchers based at the Oxford Internet Institute, part of the University of Oxford, highlight the best and worst companies in the UK platform economy according to how they treat their workers.
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For the third year, researchers based at the Oxford Internet Institute, part of the University of Oxford, highlight the best and worst companies in the UK platform economy according to how they treat their workers.

As the cost of daily essentials has risen and in-place hospitality has reopened, consumer demand for platform-mediated services like food delivery or ride-hailing has fallen. Rising inflation has also led investors to demand profitability from platform companies, leading in some cases to cuts on existing protections for workers.

How are platforms responding to this shift and where does it leave platform workers? This year’s Fairwork UK report ‘Fairwork UK Ratings 2023: A Call for Transparency’ evaluates working conditions at 12 of the most popular digital labour platforms in the country – Amazon Flex, Bolt, Deliveroo, Free Now, Getir, Gorillas, Just Eat, Pedal Me, Stuart, Task Rabbit, Uber, and Uber Eats – to find out.

The report ranks platforms against five principles of fair work, giving each company a score out of ten. Pedal Me topped the ranking with a score of 8 out of 10, followed by Getir (7) and Stuart (5). The study found that most other companies, such as Deliveroo, Just Eat, and Uber, could not prove they meet basic standards of fair work – such as ensuring all workers earn above the national minimum wage. However, through dialogue with Fairwork, some platforms like Stuart or Getir have made changes to their policies and practices that will improve conditions for workers.

Dr Adam Badger said: “2023 has been a challenging year for platform workers, with a depression in demand following the boom in work and tech financing during the pandemic. In many cases, workers have borne the brunt of this market uncertainty, with platforms outsourcing heavy risks onto their workforces. At a time of economic hardship for families across the UK, now more than ever people need work that is fair and decent. Our research demonstrates that most platforms are failing to ensure work that meets even basic criteria of fairness. We hope to work with workers, platforms and politicians in the year ahead to encourage positive change.”

Key findings:

  • Fair Pay – Only 2 of the 12 platforms (Pedal Me and Getir) could prove their workers earn the minimum wage after costs.
  • Fair Conditions – 7 out of 12 platforms (Pedal Me, Getir, Stuart, Amazon Flex, Deliveroo, Gorillas, and Uber) provided evidence of sufficient protection from the task-related risks, such as safety equipment without cost, emergency response systems, and free insurance.
  • Fair Contracts – 7 out of 12 platforms (Pedal Me, Getir, Stuart, Deliveroo, Gorillas, Just Eat, and Amazon Flex) provided evidence of clear and accessible contracts or terms of service.
  • Fair Management – Only 3 out of 12 platforms (Pedal Me, Getir and Stuart) were able to demonstrate effective due process for appealing ratings and terminations. Whilst many of the platforms were able to evidence anti-discrimination statements, only these 3 could demonstrate meaningful ways how they were putting their policies into action.
  • Fair Representation – Only 2 platforms so far (Uber and Deliveroo) allow for collective representation of workers. At Pedal Me, the principle of voluntary recognition with the Independent Workers’ Union of Great Britain (IWGB) has been accepted and they are now negotiating its details.

A key theme of this year’s report is the increasing use of opaque algorithms and AI tools to surveil, control and discipline platform workers. Workers interviewed expressed how algorithmic opacity has been a key driver of instability, stress, and vulnerability:

“The problem with [the platform] is that they don’t post how much you’re gonna get before you accept it, which I think is really wrong… I think there’s a reason why they don’t tell you though — when you look at £3.30 for two and a half miles.”

Publishing this study, researchers from the University of Oxford are, once again, calling for stronger protections and more robust labour standards in the UK’s platform economy.

Co-author Dr Funda Ustek-Spilda said: “Workers need to be given meaningful tools to understand how algorithmic decisions are made, how they impact the work they do, and shape the opportunities they have. In the UK, we need effective trade unions to fight for workers’ rights, to improve conditions, and increase fairness and dignity at work.”

Media Contact

For more information please contact Fairwork Communications Lead, Navneet Gidda, at

Editors notes

About Fairwork

From digital labour platforms to artificial intelligence, technological developments are transforming the way we work. Tens of millions of workers navigate these technologies in ways that expose them to both risks and benefits. In some cases, these technologies can generate new job opportunities and improve productivity, but often they also expose workers to low pay, precarity and dangerous working conditions.  By evaluating platforms and employers against measures of fairness, we hope to not shape a fairer future of work for all.  The Fairwork project is based at the Oxford Internet Institute and the WZB Berlin Social Science Center.  The research highlighted in the Fairwork report was funded by Oxford University John Fell Fund, Minderoo-Oxford Challenge in AI Governance and Oxford University Equality and Diversity Unit Returning Carer’s Fund.  The CUREC number is SSH OII C1A 19002.  The scores and the report were peer-reviewed by Dr. Oguz Alyanak.

About the OII

The Oxford Internet Institute (OII) is a multidisciplinary research and teaching department of the University of Oxford, dedicated to the social science of the Internet. Drawing from many different disciplines, the OII works to understand how individual and collective behaviour online shapes our social, economic and political world. Since its founding in 2001, research from the OII has had a significant impact on policy debate, formulation and implementation around the globe, as well as a secondary impact on people’s wellbeing, safety and understanding. Drawing on many different disciplines, the OII takes a combined approach to tackling society’s big questions, with the aim of positively shaping the development of the digital world for the public good.

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