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Internet Geographies: Data Shadows and Digital Divisions of Labour

Internet Geographies: Data Shadows and Digital Divisions of Labour


Information is the raw material for much of the work that goes on in the contemporary global economy, and there are few people and places that remain entirely disconnected from international and global economic processes. As such, it is important to understand who produces and reproduces, who has access, and who and where are represented by information in our contemporary knowledge economy.

Many now argue that the Internet is allowing a democratisation of information production and that almost anyone can produce any type of information from anywhere. Yet it is remarkable how little we know about contemporary geographies of knowledge and the ways that those information landscapes are changing over time.

Building on previous work (Geographies of the World’s Knowledge; PDF 12MB), this project proposes a comprehensive mapping of contemporary geographies of knowledge. Specifically, this work will examine three key facets of global information geographies: access, information production, and information representation using a combination of primary and secondary data.

We aim for this work to be be of general use to policy makers, the private sector, and the general public as we seek to better understand how and where information is produced in our Internet age.

Key Information

Project dates:
December 2012 - December 2018

All Publications


  • Shaw, J. and Graham, M. (2017) Our Digital Rights to the CityOxfordMeatspace Press.


  • Graham, M. (2019) There are No Rights ‘in’ Cyberspace In: Research Handbook on Human Rights and Digital Technology: Global Politics, Law and International RelationsResearch Handbooks in Human Rights seriesSciDev.Net24-32.
  • Graham, M. (2017) “Digitally Augmented Geographies” In: Understanding Spatial Media Kitchin, R., Lauriault, T.P. and Wilson, M.W. (eds.)SAGE44-55.
  • Ford, H. and Graham, M. (2016) “Semantic Cities: Coded Geopolitics and the Rise of the Semantic Web” In: Code and the City Kitchin, R. and Perng, S.-.Y. (eds.)Regions and CitiesLondonRoutledge200-214.
  • Graham, M. (2011) “Wiki space: palimpsests and the politics of exclusion” In: Critical Point of View: A Wikipedia Reader Lovink, G. and Tkacz, N. (eds.)AmsterdamInstitute of Network Cultures269-282.

Journal articles


  • Graham, M., Hale, S. and Stephens, M. (2011) “Geographies of the World’s Knowledge” In: Oxford Internet InstituteLondonOxford Internet Institute.

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